13 April 2006 Edition
1916 - 2006: Women and the Easter Rising
Women's role made Rising truly revolutionary
BY CAOILFHIONN NÍ DHONNABHÁIN
The 1916 Rising is of huge significance for Irish women. The Proclamation of the Republic read out on Easter Monday 1916 is remarkable for its radicalism, inclusiveness and endorsement of equality for women. The participation of women was an integral part of what made the Rising truly revolutionary.
With the exception of Constance Markievicz, the role of women in the 1916 Rising was largely forgotten for many years. This was a deliberate action by the reactionary Free State which stood in opposition to everything espoused in the Proclamation, including in particular its commitment to equality.
Around 220 women took part in the Rising, acting as couriers, dispatch carriers, snipers as well as providing medical care to the wounded.
Women participated in the Irish Citizen Army on equal grounds as men and Constance Markievicz, Helena Moloney, Madeleine ffrench-Mullen and Dr Kathleen Lynn were prominent in it during Easter week. Markievicz, who was second in command at the St. Stephen's Green and College of Surgeons garrisons, was sentenced to death for her role in the Rising. Her sentence was commuted to penal servitude for life "on account of her sex".
Among the last people to leave the GPO were Cumann na mBan members Winnie Carney, Julia Grenan and Elizabeth O'Farrell. Julia Grenan was a dispatch carrier during Easter week and brought information from the GPO to garrisons around the city.
The 1916 Rising represented a culmination of the dynamism created by the coming together of the struggles for national independence, women's equality and labour, and the cultural revival movement. These movements were intrinsically intertwined in a manner which we should be striving to emulate today.
In 1921 Markievicz recalled her first political activism as member of the Sligo Women's Suffrage Society saying: "It was one of the first things I worked for since I was a young girl. That was my first bite, you may say, at the apple of freedom and soon I got to the other freedoms- freedom to the nation, freedom to the workers. The question of votes for women, with the bigger thing, freedom for women and the opening of the professions to women, has been one of the things that I have worked for."
Ireland had a vibrant women's equality movement at the beginning of the 20th Century. It was a militant movement where activists were involved in direct actions, suffered imprisonment and in some cases went on hunger strike. Many of those involved in the struggle for women's equality regarded militant feminism in Ireland as part of the historical tradition of resistance where the vote was only one stage in a feminist revolution aimed at bringing to an end the social and economic subordination of Irish women, something which would reach new heights following the establishment of the Free State.
Many of those active in the Irish Citizen Army and Cumann na mBan were also active in the women's movement and in socialist organisations. For instance Winifred Carney, a member of Cumann na mBan and the Citizen Army who took part in the Easter Rising was involved in the suffrage movement, was a trade union activist and a member of the Gaelic League. Margaret Skinnider, who was born in Ireland and grew up in Scotland, was deeply involved in the women's suffrage movement in Glasgow and was a member of Cumann na mBan. Skinnider, who was reputedly an excellent shot, came over to Dublin to participate in the Rising and worked as a courier in the course of preparations for the Rising. In addition to acting as a courier she joined the snipers on the roof of the College of Surgeons during the fighting and was seriously wounded when going out to burn some houses on Harcourt Street to cut off the retreat of British soldiers who had planted a machine gun on the roof of the University Church. Speaking of the incident in which Skinnider was shot, Nora Connolly said "When they were going out to attack the nest of snipers she was in charge of the squad. William Partridge, a very famous man in the working class movement, was there and he and other members of the squad accepted that she was in charge".
Women in the Citizen Army had equal rights and duties as their male comrades. James Connolly, Commandant of the Citizen Army was a champion of equal rights for women. Many women who joined the Irish Citizen Army had been active in the Irish Women Workers Union, the entire membership of which had come out on strike during the 1913 lockout.
By their involvement in the Citizen Army and Cumann na mBan, women were not only rebelling against British rule, they were rebelling against the accepted norms of women's place in society. By attending meetings, going on training exercises and by their involvement in the events of Easter week they were breaking the confines of what was generally considered acceptable for women at that time.
Perhaps to some the struggle for women's rights does not seem as pertinent today as it did in the early 20th Century when the women who were to take part in the Easter Rising became politically active. But winning the vote should not be mistaken for the achievement of equality. A myth is peddled that equality for women has largely been won. This is akin to telling us that national independence has been won. Even if many of the reactionary anti-woman policies pursued in the decades following partition have now been overturned, equality for women remains unachieved.
Women continue to experience higher levels of poverty, have significantly inferior pension coverage, continue to carry the burden of unpaid caring work, continue to earn less than their male colleagues and represent a mere 13.8% of the T.D.'s in Leinster House. Domestic abuse and sexual violence against women persists. Women trafficked into Ireland for sexual exploitation are trapped in slavery.
There is at present a political and cultural backlash against what equality and independence has been achieved to date. This backlash is mirrored by attempts by revisionist historians to undermine, and in some cases ridicule, the importance of the role played by women such as Markievicz in the Rising.
The portrayal of women in popular culture is also a cause of concern. Misogyny in music, the degeneration in the portrayal of women on television and generally the objectification of women is on the increase. There should be no complacency regarding the social impact of derogatory portrayal of women. This is a central part of the backlash against equality for women. It is an attack on the core demand by women that they be treated as human beings before all else.
Now more than ever the fight for women's equality must remain a distinct and integral part of the struggle for political and social change, a distinct part of Republicanism. On the 90th anniversary of the Rising we must seek to highlight the roles of the women who took part. The part played in the Rising by strong, independent, ideologically driven women should serve as positive role models for young women today.
An Phoblacht Magazine
AN PHOBLACHT MAGAZINE:
- The first edition of this new magazine will feature a 10 page special on the life and legacy of our leader Martin McGuinness to mark the first anniversary of his untimely passing.
- It will include a personal reminiscence by Gerry Adams and contributions from the McGuinness family.
- There will also be an exclusive interview with our new Uachtarán Mary Lou McDonald.